- Pre-siege: battering ram
- Pre-siege: tortoise (stone walls only)
Battering rams in their simplest form have existed for millennia. Some clever individual discovered that running a large log at gates seemed to be an effective way of knocking them down. It was only a short time until bigger and better designs appeared, usually involving decorating the ram with a ram's head. The Macedonians made many advances in siegecraft, including the introduction of the covered battering-ram, the cunning invention of Polyidus of Thessaly, who served Philip II of Macedon.