- Pre-siege: siege tower
Siege towers were great feats of engineering, sometimes reaching six storeys in height. Any defenders seeing one approaching would instantly do all in their power to halt its advance. Flaming arrows and boiling oil were obvious choices; their use led the Romans to develop defensive countermeasures. Wet cow skins were often fixed to the tower's frame and men were stationed inside, equipped with water hoses made of pickled cow intestines to put out fires.