|Repair cost if ruined||640|
- 100 wealth from mining (industry)
Mining in the Roman Republic, and later Empire, took many forms. Open-pit quarries provided the materials for monuments and statues, whereas shaft mines were used to extract copper, iron, lead, and tin, as well as gold and silver. As Roman territory grew, so did the need for materials, especially metal. This was not only to equip the legions, but also supply the demands of an increasingly Romanised world. Greater demand around the 1st century BC led to more efficient mining practices, such as 'hushing'. Vast reservoirs, controlled by sluice gates, would be used to create powerful waves to wash away soil from hillsides and reveal veins of ore. Shaft mining also became more sophisticated, with machines such as waterwheels and Archimedes’ screws being used, alongside slave labour, to lift water from purpose built sump chambers, thereby draining the mines.